Floating Liquefaction and Regasification, an Assessment of Future Requirements for FLNGs and FSRUs

International Maritime Associates (IMA) has more than 40 years of experience providing business advisory services in the offshore oil and gas sector. Over the past 12 months, our team of industry analysts have prepared the most comprehensive study to date of the floating liquefaction and regasification business sector. In the 2019 Annual Outlook is our latest 150-page report, and the first professional effort to systematically look at the universe of FLNG and FSRU projects in the planning stage while categorizing the likelihood of each making the development investment hurdle.

The report contains a detailed analysis of the global LNG market and an assessment of the role floating liquefaction and regasification will play in meeting future requirements for natural gas. It is divided into three major sections:

  • LNG Demand and Supply — future global gas demand and supply, where LNG fits in satisfying global gas demand, the current and future LNG pricing environment and requirements for additional liquefaction and regasification capacity to meet future gas demand growth
  • Floating Liquefaction Plants — technology challenges on floating LNG plants, competitiveness of FLNGs, project investment drivers, details for FLNG projects in the planning queue and our assessment of the likelihood each of these projects will move forward to development
  • Floating Regasification Terminals — advantages of floating terminals, issues and constraints in FSRU projects, terminal investment drivers and barriers, details for FSRU terminals in the planning queue and our assessment of the likelihood each of these terminals will move forward to development

We don’t just provide a snapshot of the floating liquefaction and regasification sector. Our online fully searchable LNG database updates all of the project information on a 24/7 basis. As we receive new information about projects from our network of industry contacts, the database is immediately updated to reflect the latest situation. Users can access any FLNG project or FSRU terminal — in operation, under construction and planned — and immediately find the latest information on project status, along with any changes in timing and probability of the project investment decision. Database users are able to select any combination of data about projects and export the data to excel for evaluation — or use the sorting and graphics provided with the database for making comparisons and benchmarking. The search capability is user friendly and our IT staff is available to assist with any issues or questions

The 2019 Annual Outlook and real-time database is tailored for use by business planners, investors, & others involved in Floating Liquefaction and Regasification projects.

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Outline of the Report


  • Global LNG Demand
  • Role of Floating Liquefaction and Regasification
  • Outlook for FLNG and FSRU Demand
  • Likelihood Planned FLNG Projects Will Proceed to Development
  • Likelihood Planned FSRU Terminals Will Proceed to Development


  • 1. 1. Global Gas Resources
  • 1. 2. Advantages of Natural Gas
  • 1. 3. Role of LNG in Global Gas Supply
  • 1. 4. Current LNG Plant Liquefaction Capacity
  • 1. 5. LNG Regasification Terminal Capacity
  • 1. 6. Projected Growth in LNG Demand
  • 1. 7. Future Additional Liquefaction Capacity Requirements
  • 1. 8. Future Additional LNG Regasification Requirements
  • 1. 9. Future LNG Pricing Environment

  • 2. 1. Design of Floating Liquefaction Plants
  • 2. 2. Floating LNG Liquefaction Technology Challenges
  • 2. 3. Why Choose Floating Liquefaction?
  • 2. 4. Competitiveness of Floating LNG Plants
  • 2. 5. FLNGs Completed and Under Construction
  • 2. 6. Lessons Learned from the Early FLNG Investments
  • 2. 7. Planned FLNG Projects – and Potential to Clear the Investment Hurdle
  • 2. 7. 1. Africa FLNG Projects

    2. 7. 2. Australia/Southeast Asia FLNG Projects

    2. 7. 3. Mediterranean FLNG Projects

    2. 7. 4. South America and Caribbean FLNG Projects

    2. 7. 5. North America FLNG Projects

    3. FLOATING lng Storage and REGASIFICATION

  • 3. 1. Design of Floating Regasification Terminals
  • 3. 2. Why Choose Floating Regasification?
  • 3. 3. Floating Regasification Issues and Challengers
  • 3. 4. Lessons Learned from FSRU Terminals In Operation and Under Construction
  • 3. 5. Planned FSRU Terminals – and Potential to Clear the Investment Hurdle
  • 3. 5. 1. Southwest Asia/Middle East FSRU Terminals

    3. 5. 2. South America/Caribbean/Mexico FSRU Terminals

    3. 5. 3. Africa FSRU Terminals

    3. 5. 4. Southeast Asia FSRU Terminals

    3. 5. 5. Mediterranean FSRU Terminals

    3. 5. 6. Australia FSRU Terminals

    3. 5. 7. Northern Europe FRSU Terminals

List of Exhibits

  • Exhibit 1. FLNGs and FSRUs in Service, Under Constrtuction and Planned
  • Exhibit 2. Likelihood of Planned FLNG Projects Proceeding to Development
  • Exhibit 3. Likelihood of Planned FSRU Terminals Proceeding to Development
  • Exhibit 4. Global Proved Natural Gas Reserves
  • Exhibit 5. Comparative Initial Cost of Alternative Sources of Power Generation
  • Exhibit 6. Comparative O&M Cost of Alternative Sources of Power Generation
  • Exhibit 7. LNG Supply Chain
  • Exhibit 8. LNG Liquefaction Capacity Operational and Under Construction
  • Exhibit 9. LNG Liquefaction Capacity Added Each Year 1969 to 2022
  • Exhibit 10. Growth in Cumulative LNG Liquefaction Capacity 1969 to 2022
  • Exhibit 11. Location of LNG Plants in Operation or Under Construction
  • Exhibit 12. Capacity and Ownership of LNG Plants in Operation or Under Construction
  • Exhibit 13. LNG Regasification Capacity Operational and Under Construction
  • Exhibit 14. LNG Regasification Capacity Added Each Year Since 1969
  • Exhibit 15. Cumulative Growth in LNG Regasification Capacity
  • Exhibit 16. Location of LNG Regasification Plants in Operation or Under Construction
  • Exhibit 17. Capacity and Ownership of LNG Regasification Terminals
  • Exhibit 18. IEA Forecast of Annual Gas Demand Growth Through 2040
  • Exhibit 19. EIA Forecast of Global Annual Gas Consumption Through 2040
  • Exhibit 20. IEEJ Forecast of Global LNG Demand
  • Exhibit 21. Shell Forecast of LNG Demand Through 2035
  • Exhibit 22. ExxonMobil Forecast of LNG Demand Through 2040
  • Exhibit 23. BP Forecast of LNG Demand Through 2040
  • Exhibit 24. Projected LNG Demand Growth by Market Segment
  • Exhibit 25. Shell’s Projected LNG Supply/Demand Balance Through 2030
  • Exhibit 26. Expanding Global LNG Network
  • Exhibit 27. LNG Price Trend in Major Markets
  • Exhibit 28. LNG Price Trends vs. Oil Parity Price
  • Exhibit 29. Henry Hub and JKM LNG Futures Price
  • Exhibit 30. Illustrative FLNG Gas Treatment and Liquefaction Plant
  • Exhibit 31. LNG Plant Flow Diagram
  • Exhibit 32. Cascade Liquefaction Cycle
  • Exhibit 33. Single Mixed Refrigerant Process
  • Exhibit 34. Nitrogen Expander Cycle
  • Exhibit 35. Summary Comparison of Three Basic LNG Liquefaction Processes
  • Exhibit 36. Cost Breakdown of Floating Liquefaction
  • Exhibit 37. Relative Cost Comparison of LNG Plants
  • Exhibit 38. Comparative Breakeven Prices of Land LNG Plants
  • Exhibit 39. FLNG Project Success Factor Evaluation
  • Exhibit 40. Planned FLNG Projects in Africa
  • Exhibit 41. Planned FLNG Projects in Australia and Southeast Asia
  • Exhibit 42. Planned FLNG Projects in the Mediterranean
  • Exhibit 43. Planned FLNG Projects in South America and Caribbean
  • Exhibit 44. Planned FLNG Projects in North America (GOM and Canada)
  • Exhibit 45. Open Loop vs Closed Loop Regasification
  • Exhibit 46. Ship Mounted Regasification Module
  • Exhibit 47. Trend in Number of FSRUs in Service
  • Exhibit 48. Where Floating Regasification Terminals Are Being Planned
  • Exhibit 49. FSRU Project Success Factor Evaluation
  • Exhibit 50. Planned FSRU Terminals in SW Asia/Middle East
  • Exhibit 51. Planned FSRU Projects in South America/Caribbean/Mexico
  • Exhibit 52. Planned FSRU Projects in Africa
  • Exhibit 53. Planned FSRU Projects in Southeast Asia
  • Exhibit 54. Planned FSRU Projects in the Mediterranean
  • Exhibit 55. Planned FSRU Projects in Australia
  • Exhibit 56. Planned FSRU Projects in Northern Europe


No Other Research Firm Provides More Insight into the Floating Liquefaction and Regasification Market.

This comprehensive business intelligence service and online database provides insider access to business and investment opportunities in the deep-water global Floating Liquefaction and Regasification sector. There is nothing else like it anywhere.


plan Annual Report Database Access price


  • 2019 FLNG Outlook Report
  • Over 150 Pages of Analysis
  • Over 120 Infographics & Exhibits
  • 76 Projects Evaluated and Tracked
2Annual Report:Yes Database Access: No price: $2,800


  • 2019 FLNG Outlook Report
  • Over 150 Pages of Analysis
  • Over 120 Infographics & Exhibits
  • 76 Projects Evaluated and Tracked
  • One Year Access to Online Database
  • Build and Export Custom Charts and Graphs
  • Data updated 24/7 by analysts with many years industry experience
  • State-of-the-art search tools and capability to easily transfer data to Excel spreadsheet
  • Contacts to follow up with in planned projects for marketing purposes
Annual Report: Yes Database access:Yes price: $3,950
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